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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 137-152

Myoclonus associated with infections: A narrative review

1 Department of Neurology, GCS Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
2 Apollo Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Neurology, Shree Krishna Hospital and Pramukhswami Medical College, Bhaikaka University, Anand, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Soaham Desai
Department of Neurology, Shree Krishna Hospital and Pramukhswami Medical College, Bhaikaka University, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/AOMD.AOMD_25_22

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Different movement disorders are reported in association with infectious diseases. In addition, myoclonus can be associated with different types of viral and bacterial infections. We screened three electronic databases for cases of myoclonus as a feature of different infections and collected cases and series describing myoclonus associated with infections. Data regarding study design, sample size, neurological assessment, and diagnostic workup including brain imaging and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were extracted from the identified studies. In this narrative review, we review different infections associated with myoclonus and discuss their salient features. The infections presenting with myoclonus include predominantly subacute sclerosing panencephalitis due to measles. In addition, we describe other viral infections that are reported to associated with myoclonus. Recently, coronavirus disease 2019 infections have been reported to be increasingly associated with myoclonus. The hypothesized mechanisms of infection-related myoclonus are vasculopathy, autoimmune reactions, and inflammation. Although myoclonus is considered to be a result of heredodegenerative, metabolic, or autoimmune disorders, infections may present with myoclonus, especially in tropical and developing countries. In this review, we describe the infections that are associated with myoclonus.

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