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REVIEW ARTICLES
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 23-37

Spectrum of de novo movement disorders in the setting of COVID-19 infection: Part 2: Hyperkinetic movement disorders


1 Department of Neurology, Medisquare Hospital, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
2 Department of Neurology, Sterling Hospital, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
3 Department of Neurology, Shree Krishna Hospital and Pramukhswami Medical College, Bhaikaka University, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Soaham Desai
Consultant Neurologist and Head, Department of Neurology, Shree Krishna Hospital and Pramukhswami Medical College, Bhaikaka University, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/AOMD.AOMD_51_21

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Movement disorders are relatively sparse amongst COVID-19 patients. However, in the setting of large number of COVID-19 cases, relatively rare acute to subacute onset, para-infectious or post-infectious movement disorders such as myoclonus and myoclonus-ataxia with or without opsoclonus have increasingly become more evident. Our objective of writing this paper is to summarize the available evidence documenting new onset hyperkinetic movement disorders associated with COVID-19. Myoclonus is the most frequently reported movement disorder associated with COVID-19 alone or in combination with ataxia and tremors. Apart from isolated myoclonus, myoclonus with ataxia, opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome have been reported post COVID. Isolated cerebellar ataxia is the other most commonly described movement disorder post COVID. Tremors, Chorea and dystonia are rarely described hyperkinetic movement disorders in association with COVID. Treatments being offered for hyperkinetic movement disorders consists of symptomatic treatment with benzodiazepine, anti-seizure drugs, immunomodulatory treatment with steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin and rehabilitative therapies. In this review we summarize the neurological features, investigations, treatments, and outcomes of all the published cases of hyperkinetic movement disorders associated with COVID-19.


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