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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 8-19

Sleep disturbances in patients with Parkinson’s disease: It’s time to wake up!

1 Department of Neurology, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC, USA
2 Department of Neurology, Kansas University Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA
3 Department of Neurology, Vikram Hospital, Bangalore, India
4 Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Pramod K Pal
Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health & Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Hosur Road, Bengaluru 560029, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/AOMD.AOMD_16_18

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Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) develop a range of non-motor symptoms (NMS). Sleep disturbance is one of the common NMS of PD and the onset of sleep disorders often precede the onset of motor symptoms of PD. Motor symptoms of PD often receive the main clinical focus and the sleep disturbances often go unnoticed in clinical practice. Given that the prevalence of PD is higher in the elderly population, primary care physicians, geriatricians, and gerontologists are usually the first point of contact for a majority of patients with PD. Because of this, it is important that they have a clear understanding about the diagnosis and management of the sleep disturbances in PD. This review provides an overview of the full spectrum of sleep disturbances in PD that includes insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, restless leg syndrome, periodic limb movements, and obstructive sleep apnea. Although these sleep disorders may be primarily associated with PD, it is crucial to delineate the other treatable causes of sleep disturbances such as side effects of medications and physical symptoms not related to PD. This review highlights the major sleep disorders observed in patients with PD and succinctly discusses their management aspects. In addition, we have briefly described the effect of deep brain stimulation on the natural course of several sleep disorders in PD in this article.

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